II. Besides this, heroic poetry must divide into an equivalent species as Tragedy; it must be either simple or complex, a story of character or one among suffering. Its parts, too, with the exception of Song and Spectacle, must be an equivalent , because it requires Peripeties, Discoveries, and scenes of suffering a bit like Tragedy. Lastly, the Thought and Diction in it must be good in their way. of these elements appear in Homer first; and he has made due use of them. His two poems are each samples of construction, the Iliad simple and a story of suffering, the Odyssey complex (there is Discovery throughout it) and a story of character. and that they are quite this, since in Diction and Thought too they surpass all other poems.
There is, however, a difference within the Epic as compared with Tragedy, (1) in its length, and (2) in its metre. (1) on its length, the limit already suggested will suffice: it must be possible for the start and end of the work to be taken in in one view—a condition which can be fulfilled if the poem be shorter than the old epics, and about as long because the series of tragedies offered for one hearing. For the extension of its length heroic poetry features a special advantage, of which it makes large use. during a play one cannot represent an action with variety of parts happening simultaneously; one is restricted to the part on the stage and connected with the actors. Whereas i.e.ic poetry the narrative form makes it possible for one to explain variety of simultaneous incidents; and these, if germane to the topic , increase the body of the poem. This then may be a gain to the Epic, tending to offer it grandeur, and also sort of interest and room for episodes of diverse kinds. Uniformity of incident by the satiety it soon creates is apt to ruin tragedies on the stage. (2) As for its metre, the heroic has been assigned it from experience; were anybody to aim a narrative poem in some one, or in several, of the opposite metres, the incongruity of the thing would be apparent. The heroic; actually is that the gravest and weightiest of metres—which is what makes it more tolerant than the remainder of strange words and metaphors, that also being some extent during which the narrative sort of poetry goes beyond all others. The iambic and trochaic, on the opposite hand, are metres of movement, the one representing that of life and action, the opposite that of the dance. Still more unnatural wouldn’t it appear, it one were to write down an epic during a medley of metres, as Chaeremon did. Hence it’s that nobody has ever written an extended story in any but heroic verse; nature herself, as we’ve said, teaches us to pick the metre appropriate to such a story.
Homer, admirable as he’s i.e.ery other respect, i.e.pecially so during this , that he alone among epic poets isn’t unaware of the part to be played by the poet himself within the poem. The poet should say little or no in propria persona, as he’s no imitator when doing that. Whereas the opposite poets are perpetually coming forward face to face , and say but little, which only here and there, as imitators, Homer after a quick preface brings in forthwith a person , a woman, or another Character—no one among them characterless, but each with distinctive characteristics.
The marvellous is certainly required in Tragedy. The Epic, however, affords more opening for the improbable, the chief think about the marvellous, because in it the agents aren’t visibly before one. The scene of the pursuit of Hector would be ridiculous on the stage—the Greeks halting rather than pursuing him, and Achilles shaking his head to prevent them; but within the poem the absurdity is overlooked. The marvellous, however, may be a explanation for pleasure, as is shown by the very fact that we all tell a story with additions, within the belief that we do our hearers a pleasure.
Homer quite the other has taught the remainder folks the art of framing lies within the right way. I mean the utilization of paralogism. Whenever, if A is or happens, a consequent, B, is or happens, men’s notion is that, if the B is, the A also is—but that’s a false conclusion. Accordingly, if A is untrue, but there’s something else, B, that on the idea of its truth follows as its consequent, the proper thing then is to feature on the B. simply because we all know the reality of the resultant, we are in our own minds led on to the erroneous inference of the reality of the antecedent. Here is an instance, from the Bath-story within the Odyssey.
A likely impossibility is usually preferable to an unconvincing possibility. The story should never be made from improbable incidents; there should be nothing of the type in it. If, however, such incidents are unavoidable, they ought to be outside the piece, just like the hero’s ignorance in Oedipus of the circumstances of Lams’ death; not within it, just like the report of the Pythian Games in Electra, or the man’s having come to Mysia from Tegea without uttering a word on the way, within the Mysians. in order that it’s ridiculous to mention that one’s Plot would are spoilt without them, since it’s fundamentally wrong to form up such Plots. If the poet has taken such a Plot, however, and one sees that he may need put it during a more probable form, he’s guilty of absurdity also as a fault of art. Even within the Odyssey the improbabilities within the setting-ashore of Ulysses would be clearly intolerable within the hands of an inferior poet. As it is, the poet conceals them, his other excellences veiling their absurdity. Elaborate Diction, however, is required only in places where there’s no action, and no Character or Thought to be revealed. Where there’s Character or Thought, on the opposite hand, an over-ornate Diction tends to obscure them.
Aristotle’s Poetics Summary & Analysis of Chapters 24 = Aristotle’s Poetics Summary & Analysis of Chapters 24 = Aristotle’s Poetics Summary & Analysis of Chapters 24 = Aristotle’s Poetics Summary & Analysis of Chapters 24 = Aristotle’s Poetics Summary & Analysis of Chapters 24 = Aristotle’s Poetics Summary & Analysis of Chapters 24