What is Autism ? Autism meaning and causes

What is Autism ? Autism meaning and causes



Autism is a condition when the brain development of an individual is hampered due to some of the hereditary, environmental or idiopathic reasons that may get its acknowledgment after the first 2 years of the life of a child. This mental disability or behavioral inappropriateness persists throughout the life if not any suitable intervention being taken as per as possible after diagnosis. Autism impairs the social behavior, communication capacity, wisdom, learning, and understanding capacity of the child so the child may be regarded as antisocial or get rebuked and belittled by the people of the society but the view of the life of an autistic individual is somewhat different from normal beings. Parents or guardians generally find their child autistic at the age of 3 as 90% of the brain development gets completed at this age so any delay or dysfunction can be observed easily.

Autism meaning and causes: 

Autism is different from any of the other mental disorders, it is considered as a delayed form of mental development that’s why the autistic child doesn’t catch up the growth milestone. The growth of the brain of an autistic child is faster than usual for the first few months, but later it slows down for unknown reasons. It is also found among the autistic child that the higher amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines that cause inflammation in both the peripheral and the central immune system of the cell. This increased amount of cytokines used as a biomarker to separate autistic children from normal ones. 

The number of autistic children is emerging day by day so the awareness among the common beings has increased. Autism is generally caused by a genetic and environmental factor, but regardless of it, autism is also found among the child whose mother was suffering from an infection like rubella or the mother were alcoholic and take the illegal drug during pregnancy especially at third trimester. Autism is more apparent among the boy than girl which is recorded as 4 times higher than the girl child. It is also estimated that the incidence of autism was approximately 24.8 million in 2015 and the estimation also revealed that the worldwide prevalence is 1 per thousand individuals and the situation is going to be worsening. 


The diagnosis of autism is solely based on a behavioral abnormality rather than getting acknowledged by any disease condition. Parents find it due to the lack of social behavior, interaction, repetitive use of the same words or sentences, use of idiosyncratic words, or lack of concentration or interest in any kind of work. Among several diagnostic instruments, two of them are mostly used- ADI-R (Autism Diagnostic Interview-revised) and ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Observation schedule). 

Management of autistic child: 

The management of autistic disorder is tough or sometimes impossible, but it’s better to be careful to prevent any sort of infection at the time of pregnancy and stop taking alcohol or drug which isn’t permitted to take. The main goal of management of the patient with autism is to make them independent and to reduce the stress of the family. Family support and education would be the primary intervention to face the difficulty. Besides, applied behavior analysis (ABA), speech and language therapy with other occupational therapy can be useful to make the patient live a normal life 


The autistic individual is an indispensable part of our society, they need our support, not favor. Globally, our education system and dissemination of knowledge regarding autism and overall management should get spread out to upright their future and to reduce the miseries’ of the family. 


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