English literature: The Victorian Age The Reform Bill of 1832 gave the middle class the political power it needed to consolidate—and to hold—the economic position it had already achieved. Industry and commerce burgeoned. While the affluence of the middle class increased, the lower classes, thrown off their land and into the cities to form the great urban working class, lived ever more wretchedly. The social changes were so swift and brutal that Godwinian utopianism rapidly gave way to attempts either to justify the new economic and urban conditions or to change them. The intellectuals and artists of the age had to deal in some way with the upheavals in society, the obvious inequities of abundance for a few and squalor for many, and, emanating from the throne of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), an emphasis on public rectitude and moral propriety. The Novel The Victorian era was the great age of the English novel—realistic, thickly plotted, crowded with characters, and long. It was the ideal form to describe contemporary life and to entertain the middle class. The novels of Charles Dickens, full to overflowing with drama, humor, and an endless variety of vivid characters and plot complications, nonetheless spare nothing in their portrayal of what urban life was like for all classes. William Makepeace Thackeray is best known for Vanity Fair (1848), which wickedly satirizes hypocrisy and greed. Emily Brontë's (see Brontë, family) single novel, Wuthering Heights (1847), is a unique masterpiece propelled by a vision of elemental passions but controlled by an uncompromising artistic sense. The fine novels of Emily's sister Charlotte Brontë, especially Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853) are more rooted in convention, but daring in their ways. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) appeared during the 1860s and 70s. A woman of great erudition and moral fervor, Eliot was concerned with ethical conflicts and social problems. George Meredith produced comic novels noted for their psychological perception. Another novelist of the late 19th cent. was the prolific Anthony Trollope, famous for sequences of related novels that explore social, ecclesiastical, and political life in England. Thomas Hardy 's profoundly pessimistic novels are all set in the harsh, punishing midland county he called Wessex. Samuel Butler produced novels satirizing the Victorian ethos, and Robert Louis Stevenson, a master of his craft, wrote arresting adventure fiction and children's verse. The mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, writing under the name Lewis Carroll, produced the complex and sophisticated children's classics Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Glass (1871). Lesser novelists of considerable merit include Benjamin Disraeli, George Gish, Elizabeth Gaskell, and Wilkie Collins. By the end of the period, the novel was considered not only the premier form of entertainment but also a primary means of analyzing and offering solutions to social and political problems. Nonfiction Among the Victorian masters of nonfiction were the great Whig historian Thomas Macaulay and Thomas Carlyle, the historian, social critic, and prophet whose rhetoric thundered through the age. Influential thinkers included John Stuart Mill, the great liberal scholar, and philosopher; Thomas Henry Huxley, a scientist and popularizer of Darwinian theory; and John Henry, Cardinal Newman, who wrote earnestly of religion, philosophy, and education. The founders of Communism, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels researched and wrote their books in the free environment of England. The great art historian and critic John Ruskin also concerned himself with social and economic problems. Matthew Arnold 's theories of literature and culture laid the foundations for modern literary criticism, and his poetry is also notable. Poetry The preeminent poet of the Victorian age was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Although romantic in subject matter, his poetry was tempered by personal melancholy; in its mixture of social certitude and religious doubt it reflected the age. The poetry of Robert Browning and his wife, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, was immensely popular, though Elizabeth's was more venerated during their lifetimes. Browning is best remembered for his superb dramatic monologues. Rudyard Kipling, the poet of the empire triumphant, captured the quality of the life of the soldiers of British expansion. Some fine religious poetry was produced by Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, and Lionel Johnson. In the middle of the 19th cent. the so-called Pre-Raphaelites, led by the painter-poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti, sought to revive what they judged to be the simple, natural values and techniques of medieval life and art. Their quest for a rich symbolic art led them away, however, from the mainstream. William Morris —designer, inventor, painter, poet, and social philosopher—was the most versatile of the group, which included the poets Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore. Algernon Charles Swinburne began as a Pre-Raphaelite but soon developed his own classically influenced, sometimes florid style. A. E. Housman and Thomas Hardy, Victorian figures who lived on into the 20th cent., share a pessimistic view in their poetry, but Housman's well-constructed verse is rather more superficial. The great innovator among the late Victorian poets was the Jesuit priest Gerard Manley Hopkins. The concentration and originality of his imagery, as well as his jolting meter ( sprung rhythm ), had a profound effect on 20th-century poetry. During the 1890s the most conspicuous figures on the English literary scene were the decadents. The principal figures in the group were Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson, and, first among them in both notoriety and talent, Oscar Wilde. The Decadents' disgust with bourgeois complacency led them to extremes of behavior and expression. However limited their accomplishments, they pointed out the hypocrisies in Victorian values and institutions. The sparkling, witty comedies of Oscar Wilde and the comic operettas of W. S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan were perhaps the brightest achievements of 19th-century British drama. Victorian Age VICTORIAN AGE - Analysis The Victorian Age was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign and it was the longest reign in British history, a period of growth in the economy thanks to the development of industry and transports and period of political expansion: the British Empire took enormous proportions. Victorian age was also the age of social reforms, for example, there were Factory acts: this act improved the condition of workers in factories and the elementary education Acts: elementary school became free and compulsory This period is also named Puritan age because sex became a taboo, families were strictly patriarchal and so women were under the authority of their fathers or husbands, even if, during the Victorian Age, women began to fight for freedom and emancipation with the suffragette’s movement If on the one hand Victorian Age was a period of developing, on the other hand it was a period of social problems: this is the Victorian compromise. The Victorians made a compromise between these two aspects and hide them behind optimism and hypocrisy. The ideal Victorian woman was an “angel in the house”, her place was in the house, she was a pious, respectable and busy wife, mother and daughter Victorian women did not have the same rights as men, they had limited education and, therefore, limited employment opportunities IN MEMORIAM This poem deals with Tennyson’s visit to his friend Arthur’s house and the sorrow he feels because of his death. It is about the separation of two friends by death. The poet uses the adjective “dark” to explain his sadness. (…) This sentence means that anyway life goes on and can be connected with the song... BREAK BREAK BREAK In this poem Tennyson is in a bay and he is looking out to the Sea, which is personified. In this particular moment, Tennyson feels as he is overcome by a great number of thoughts. In this poem he seems to be a painter, which paints some scenes of everyday life. Thanks to his words, the reader can “see” two children, playing on the beach, or a sailor, singing on his boat. This scene seems to be pervaded by quietness and tranquillity, but it’s the only appearance, considering that the poet always thinks about his dead friend.